Houses in Russia breaking down like them made of Lego bricks. Alaska spends millions of dollars every year repairing existing roads soaked with wrinkles. In Canada, Iqaluit Airport the runway is sinking, when pilots would not.
You can’t say that the engineers are building on snow, the ice is in the northern hemisphere and at higher altitudes — in some Russian cities, up to 80 percent of the houses are located. Part of the earth should be cool; it’s in the very name. But the Arctic world, and beyond, is rebelling. As the Arctic warms up four times faster Like the rest of the world, permafrost is very soluble, dragging everything down or blocking any buried material, such as roads, railways, pipes, canals, transmission lines.
“The frozen landscape is not a hive of bears,” says George Washington University climate meteorologist Dmitry Streletskiy, co-author of one agency. comments on a permafrost that was published last week in a magazine Nature Defines the Earth and the Universe. “There are a lot of people, factories, settlements, developed areas, and these areas are very economically busy.” Permafrost thaw threatens many Arctic cities and towns, and could put up 70 percent of the high-risk infrastructure by the 20th century, his team writes, spending billions on roads, housing, and safety. crooked paths.
Permafrost is a mixture of clay, sand, or ice in ice. Because solid water takes up more space than liquid water, when permafrost is dissolved, the soil is depleted. The higher the ice, the deeper the dip. If the sinking is done in the same way in the surrounding area, it will not be a big problem, because the construction will depend on the same. But if the soil melts at the end of the house and not on the other side, the difference may cause the foundation to collapse. It is a major problem in the cities of the former Soviet Union that are filled with large houses that are heavy with snow: By 2012, about 40 percent of the houses in Vorkuta, Russia, had already been destroyed, and in some areas . towns and more than 100 percent.
Roads and railways – known as connecting lines – are at high risk because they run around the area, thus having the potential for diversification. “You do not want one pipe to go down the other [part] stay in one place, ”says Streletskiy. Roads are facing some challenges; they are outside when the sun can warm the snow. (Construction provides less shade to keep the soil cool.)
But even though permafrost does not melt completely, heat can damage its integrity, as well as anything on top of it. “When you remove the pizza from the fridge, it becomes solid,” Streletskiy says in an analogy. “You put it on the table and in time it becomes soft and fluffy. It’s still cool, but you already know the machine is changing. ”
Thawing permafrost also carries an innumerable cost per season: it saves half of the organic carbon in place of the earth. Once dissolved, parasites begin to chew organic matter and lose the greenhouse gas, which warms the earth. In some parts of the Arctic, permafrost melts very rapidly and craters in the soil, when standing water comes out methane, high-temperature air conditioning.
Permafrost thaw mergers peat fire and soil erosion — when the ground collapses after the groundwater runoff — in a trio of poorly studied but significant human-made disasters. Peat is made from thousands of years old plants that have multiplied, one after the other. It is not frozen, but wet, which retains its natural properties. However, in hot weather, it has dried up in all areas, producing carbon dioxide that can burn with beating one lightning. Guillermo Rein, a peat fire student at Imperial College London, stated: “Nature does not want peat to burn. Unlike ordinary of California or From Australia wildfires that pass through the bushes, this kind of fire burns down. “It’s the largest fire in the world, as well as a fire too late fire on Earth. Like, a real child can outdo them, ”he continues.
However, that does not make them feel safe. Situations on the verge of extinction: In the Arctic, they hit the ground in winter, even when snow falls and then emerges. “Zombie fire” in the spring. But unlike the permafrost thaw, this type of weather-related danger is not limited to the highlands but also the surrounding areas. In 2008, authorities flooded North Carolina with 7.5 billion liters of water from nearby lakes – it took seven months to finally dived into the fire.